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Official Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society of Africa
2018, Metamorphosis Volume 29 Articles: 92 - 117
Publication Date : 2018-11-29
Author/s : Alan Heath, Zofia A. Kaliszewska and Ernest L. Pringle

Title :

An overview of the biology of the Afrotropical butterfly genus Crudaria Wallengren, 1875 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Aphnaeinae), including some new observations

Abstract :

An overview of the biology of the lepidopteran genus Crudaria is presented, including detailed notes on, and illustrations of, the morphology and life history of the constituent species. Aphytophagy is recorded for the first time in one of the three currently recognized species and it is inferred to probably also occur in a second. Oviposition on Asteraceae is recorded for the first time for the genus. A diversity of biological characteristics within the genus are highlighted and their potential taxonomic significance is discussed. Both C. capensis and C. wykehami are confirmed as good species and we find their morphological characters to be reasonably stable. Although small regional differences were found in the male genitalia of C. leroma, they were found to be unreliable as primary taxonomic characters.     Maximum likelihood and Bayesian consensus trees of Crudaria based on mitochondrial DNA show C. leroma as two separate clades - east and west. A further molecular study, using additional genes and more material, is needed to refine the phylogeny inferred here and before any taxonomic changes are made. In addition, formal designation of a leroma type is recommended in order to relate to one or other of the groups of C. leroma sensu lato.

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Keywords:

Aphytophagous, entomophagous, trophallaxis, maximum likelihood, ML, bootstrap, molecular tree, mitochondrial DNA, Caffraria, dish organs, dew patches, tubercles, dorsal nectary organ, DNO, tentacular organ, TO, genitalia, uncus, saccus, vinculum,&

Citation :

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